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Indigenous Protected Areas

Indigenous Protected Areas (IPAs) are a globally recognised, Indigenous-developed way for people to meet their aspiration to care for country long term and participate in the National Reserve System. Nationally, there are 70 Indigenous Protected Areas, which make up more than 44 per cent of Australia’s National Reserve System. IPAs combine traditional and contemporary knowledge into a framework to leverage partnerships with conservation and commercial organisations and provide employment, education and training opportunities for Indigenous people.

In close cooperation with Traditional Owners, the NLC manages three Indigenous Protected Areas (IPAs): the Wardaman IPA (declared in 2014) the Ganalanga Mindibirrina IPA (2016) and the South-East Arnhem Land IPA (2017).

Wardaman IPA

Wardaman Country lies within the Victoria River and Upper Daly catchments, west of Katherine. The Wardaman IPA covers approximately 224,718 hectares of country rich in cultural heritage. More than 200 recorded rock art sites with about 6000 individual paintings and 41,000 engravings have been recorded. The Lightning Brothers at Yiwarlarlayi on Delamere Station is the best-known Wardaman rock art site. Six art site complexes are considered of national significance and have been registered with the Australian Heritage Commission. The natural landscape, including hills, waterholes, billabongs, springs, water courses, rock outcrops, mineral outcrops, soil, sand, trees and other vegetation, are also culturally significant sites.

The Wardaman IPA has a management emphasis on cultural values and is a hotspot for ancient rock art. In partnership with the Northern Territory Government, via its innovative Ranger Grant program, our staff support traditional Owners in maintenance of these sites. This includes slashing of long grass to create a fire breaks, as well as fence repairs and other active conservation measures.

This year the Wadaman IPA was successful in sourcing funding for the appointment of full-time rangers. This move from a casual workforce to full-time staff was a significant milestone, which included the employment of their first full-time women’s ranger.

During 2018/19, management highlights included:

  • Helicopter surveys to monitor the populations and distributions of feral animals and a systematic deployment of cat traps. Data from these findings are being processed into a feral animal management strategy, which can be used for further management on the IPA.
  • In partnership with the Northern Territory’s Water Resource Department, the Wardaman rangers have commenced training and working in water monitoring. On a monthly basis during the dry season, the rangers have been testing springs, which naturally occur on the IPA.
  • Trial savanna burning has the goal of becoming a registered carbon project in 2020. Rangers and Traditional Owners have begun, with support of Bushfires NT to implement an early season fire program. This was integrated with a ranger exchange to the neighbouring Wagiman rangers to strengthen practical knowledge in fire management.
  • Participation in Birdlife Workshops, alongside the Timber Creek and Daguragu rangers (Central Land Council). These now well-established bird survey skills will benefit the progression of bird surveys on Wardaman IPA, which is known to host an array of birdlife, including the near threatened, elusive and iconic gouldian finch.

Ganalanga Mindibirrina IPA

The Ganalanga Mindibirrina Indigenous Protected Are, which is within the South Western Gulf of the Borroloola Barkly Region and covers about 11,000 square kilometres, is the homeland of the Waanyi and Garawa people.

It encompasses most of the Nicolson Basin and is divided by what is known as China Wall. This location is relatively untouched and is declared as a Category VI, Managed Resource Protected Area, under the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Its management is guided by the Indigenous Protected Area Plan of Management 2015-2020.

The IPA has existing outstations to the north and south of China Wall, some of which are inhabited and others that are visited throughout the year. Various goals and actions are associated within the Plan of Management, including living on country, teaching the next generation culture and language through leaning and ceremonies, and developing ideas for sustainable employment within their IPA homelands.

Community consultation meeting at Borroloola

Getting back out onto country allows for better connection to the land and the opportunity to develop ideas that may lead to opportunities to earn incomes.

Burning to ensure a healthy country is important on the IPA. It reduces the chance of late wildfire sweeping across country and harming fragile ecosystems. Late fires are a significant threat to the outstations, neighbouring pastoral leases and livestock. The aim for Ganalanga Mindibirrina is to conduct yearly prescribed controlled and monitored burns. There is also an opportunity for carbon farming on the IPA – that will be further developed in 2019/20.

Over the past year, limited fire fuel load reduction work has been undertaken to reduce the intensity and minimise the threat of late wildfire to country and neighbouring land and cattle stations. It is anticipated that after the next committee meeting, annual work plans for regular fire management carbon farming initiatives will develop.

There are several common species of feral animal on the IPA, including horses, pigs, donkeys and cane toads. Cattle and feral animal surveys have previously been undertaken and during 2018/19 further funding has been awarded for new comparative surveys. It is anticipated that the evidence generated will lead to the development of a large animal management plan.

The IPA continues to support and encourage women rangers to work on the. They take part in all the duties required of any ranger, including sacred site care and management, public awareness, animal surveys, trapping, weed spraying and removal.

South East Arnhem Land IPA

At nearly 20,000 square kilometres, the South East Arnhem Land IPA spans most of south east Arnhem Land along the far western Gulf of Carpentaria from Blue Mud Bay to the mouth of the Roper River, where tidal flats meet vast coastal plains backed by rugged sandstone uplands.

The vegetation is predominately open eucalypt woodland with paperbark and monsoon rainforests along waterways or in moister pockets.

In the north, tall eucalypt woodlands occur on the deepest soils, while a mosaic of native grasslands, vine thickets, samphire and mangroves characterise the coastal lowlands.

The IPA is managed by an Advisory Committee of senior elders from the Ngukurr and Numbulwar communities.

The South East Arnhem Land IPA consists of the traditional estates of over 20 clans, who speak of themselves as Yugul.

Their country comprises a patchwork of homelands with 20 established outstations, each belonging to a particular family group or clan. All homelands are associated with significant cultural sites and all are enormously important, as they reflect the pattern of traditional land use and ownership.

Homelands are places where ceremonies occur, bush tucker is collected or hunted, and where history, stories and traditional ways are passed on to our children.

Sea Country is particularly important as the basis for livelihoods. It is a key part of culture with Dreamtime ancestors creating marine sites and features just as they did on the land.

Kenbi Rangers patrolling sea country on Darwin Harbour

The South East Arnhem Land IPA is jointly managed by the Yugul Mangi and Numbulwar Numburindi Rangers, based out of Ngukurr and Numbulwar respectively. The rangers work on behalf of Traditional Owners of the Ritharrngu, Rembarrnga, Ngandi, Ngalakgan, Warndarrang, Yugul and Nunggubuyu peoples whose country is situated in south east Arnhem Land.

During 2018/19 management highlights included:

  The Yugul Mangi rangers, Numbulwar Numburindi rangers, Traditional Owners and Parks and Wildlife rangers undertook a collaborative rock art project funded through the NT Department of Environmental and Natural Resources’ Aboriginal Ranger Grant Program in 2018. This involved surveying rock art sites in Limmen National Park and the South East Arnhem Land IPA. Rangers gained skills in survey methodology and rock art site protection, recording and interpretation, and facilitated the protection and preservation of important rock art sites from environmental degradation.

  • The SEAL IPA received funding through the NT Department of Environmental and Natural Resources’ Aboriginal Ranger Grant Program to undertake feral animal management over the entire IPA. The rangers undertook aerial surveys in September 2019 to get an estimate on numbers of feral buffalo, horses, pigs, cattle and donkeys. The rangers also installed photo point monitoring sites throughout the IPA to monitor any changes in land condition from feral animal management in the future.
  • Three IPA Advisory Committee meetings were held in the 2018/19 financial year. The committee is uniquely representative of regional clans, language groups and the townships of Ngukurr and Numbulwar. Initially established to make decisions in relation adaptive IPA management, the role of the SEAL IPA advisory committee has quickly expanded.
  • Members continued their program of governance training and are now managing annual budgets in excess of $2 million and an ever-widening array of issues. The SEAL IPA Advisory Committee has also made decisions on funding a community planning and development project using carbon funds.
  • This funding has been used to purchase new vehicles for the rangers and to support holding culture camps for Ngukurr and Numbulwar communities.
  • The Yugul Mangi rangers ran a twoday culture camp in September 2018. Traditional Owners from the South East Arnhem Land Indigenous Protected Area (SEAL IPA) supported the camp, using some of their income from the carbon farming work of their rangers.

The camp was held at Namiilliwirri outstation, just outside of Ngukurr community, with support from the Ngukurr School and Ngukurr Language Centre.

Yugul Mangi and Numbulwar Numburindi rRangers undertake regular river and sea patrols as part of their work with NT Fisheries to monitor fishing compliance, record suspicious activity and educate visitors about fishing regulations. Fisheries officers visit Numbulwar and Ngukurr twice a year to do compliance training with the rangers, who also retrieve ghost nets and marine debris from the water and beaches. Ghost nets are commercial fishing nets that have been lost, abandoned or discarded at sea.

Jabul Huddlestone, senior Wagiman traditional owner & cultural advisor conducting traditional burning on country

Carbon Projects

A number of NLC ranger groups, Indigenous Protected Area managers and Traditional Owners are involved in registered carbon abatement projects using the early dry season savanna fire methodology. In 2018/19, a number of new participants trialled these approaches as part of Indigenous Land and Sea Corporation Savanna Fire Management (SFM) Program. While much of this work was preparatory, we expect some groups to begin registering new projects in the 2020.

There is a S19 agreement with ALFA (NT) to undertake carbon farming across the South East Arnhem Land Indigenous Protected Area. It is made up of two project areas – South East Arnhem Land Fire Abatement (SEALFA) and the South East Arnhem Land Fire Abatement Stage 2 (SEALFA2.

The projects use strategic fire management, through the savanna burning methodology, to reduce the fire-generated emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. Strategic early dry season burning reduces the total area burnt each year and shifts the seasonality of burning from late dry season to early dry season.

Fire is a major focus of the Yugul Mangi and Numbulwar Numburindi Rangers’ work. Funding from carbon credits earned through this project has gone towards buying new vehicles and equipment for two ranger groups and running culture camps.

In 2018/19, 15 rangers from both ranger groups completed accredited prescribed burning and firefighting training in Ngukurr with SA Bushfire Solutions. The rangers have been building capacity to fight late season wildfires and have been employing more casual rangers through the fire operational budgets to increase employment opportunities in Ngukurr and Numbulwar. The Yugul Mangi and Numbulwar Numburindi Rangers also hosted the annual end-of-year Arnhem Land Fire Abatement (NT) meeting at Munbililla in Limmen National Park in December 2018. Twelve Indigenous ranger groups, Bushfires NT, Northern Territory Parks and Wildlife rangers, Raindance Systems and Darwin Centre for Bushfire Research staff met to discuss their fire abatement projects.

Key Partnerships

The NLC has continued to develop a suite of local, regional, Territory and national partnerships that support the development and delivery of the various ranger group and IPA activities.

Key program partners in addition to DPMC and the ILSC include the Australian Government’s Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, which provides fee-for-service agreements for biosecurity surveillance activities, and the NT Government’s Department of Primary Industries and Resources (NT Fisheries), which provides fee-for-service agreements for sea country patrols, fisheries compliance monitoring and training, with the assistance of the NT Water Police, and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

The NLC welcomed the opportunity to secure much-needed capital and land management funding under the DENR Aboriginal Ranger Grants program. Staff from the Weeds Management Branch, Bushfires NT and Flora and Fauna Division continued to provide technical advice and operational support regarding fire and weed management, and research and survey programs.

Bush Heritage Australia continued to be a valued partner, providing extensive support to the Arafura ranger groups during the development of their Healthy Country Plan, and during the planning and delivery of the biodiversity surveys within the Ganalanga Mindibirrina IPA.

Our partnership with Territory NRM continued, with a key highlight being the extension of project funding for the control of mimosa and feral pigs within the Finniss Reynolds Catchment, encompassing the floodplains of the Delissavale Wagait Larrakia ALT.

National Parks

The NLC has a statutory responsibility to protect and advocate for the interests of Traditional Owners of land and sea within its jurisdiction. This includes estates leased by the Northern Territory and Australian governments, including in the national reserve estate for conservation of natural and cultural values and tourism purposes.

Nearly half of the NT’s national parks and conservation reserves in the NLC region are Aboriginal owned and jointly managed.

The NLC works closely with Traditional Owners and the NT Parks and Wildlife Commission and Parks Australia to support and deliver joint management outcomes.

Jointly managed parks are a major resource for the NT and Traditional Owners.

Opportunities in joint management can be significant but require adequate resources. Traditional owners continued to work to build relationships and partnerships with governments and community and industry.

The NLC is focused on assisting Traditional Owners to:

  • Engage more effectively with Parks and Wildlife Commission NT and Parks Australia by providing third party technical advice and advocacy;
  • Make informed decisions relating to natural and cultural resource use and management;
  • Assess the social, cultural, environmental and economic implications of legislation and proposals affecting parks and reserves;
  • Protect and enhance traditional law and cultural practices; and
  • Pursue employment and business development opportunities.

Kakadu

Throughout 2018-2019, the Joint Management Officer continued to ensure the NLC’s statutory functions were achieved with regard to the use and management of Kakadu, in particular working to increase involvement of relevant Aboriginal people in park management decisionmaking processes; ensuring effective consultation with Traditional Owners and undertaking the responsibilities of the NLC in the Kakadu Lease.

This involved the establishment and maintenance of close working relationships with the Kakadu Board of Management, Traditional Owners, local Bininj and Mungguy communities, Parks Australia management and staff and local Aboriginal organisations.

Highlights of the year included:

  • Six community meetings held in districts across the park focused on engaging Traditional Owners and local Bininj/Mungguy to ensure their views are incorporated in park management planning processes, such as fire planning, weed and feral animal management, tourism and visitor services, park operations and cultural heritage management.
  • Three Finance Sub-Committee meetings were held to work through a range of matters related to effectively monitoring the financial management of the park.

Twenty Land Information Requests were submitted for Kakadu;

  • Seven are for consultation on development of the Tourism Masterplan and Visitor Experience Plans across the park as part of the $216 million commitment from the Commonwealth Government for Growing Tourism in Kakadu;
  • Four related to consultation on Northern Environmental Science Program research projects across the park; and
  • Nine related to consultation on various park management activities, outstation proposals and film proposals.
  • Two major films were produced with scenes shot in Kakadu. Traditional Owners were consulted and the film-making endorsed by the Kakadu Board of Management
  • Top End Wedding, a romantic comedy movie released in 2019, was partly shot in Jabiru and the park. The film created employment opportunities for Traditional Owners and local Bininj in the production crew, support roles and as cultural advisers.
  • High Ground is an action thriller set in northern Australia in the 1920s. Scenes were shot at five main locations across Kakadu and created significant employment opportunities for Traditional Owners and local Bininj/ Mungguy, including in acting roles, as cultural advisors, traffic controllers and production crew support.

Twenty Land Information Requests were submitted for Kakadu;

  • Seven are for consultation on development of the Tourism Masterplan and Visitor Experience Plans across the park as part of the $216 million commitment from the Commonwealth Government for Growing Tourism in Kakadu;
  • Four related to consultation on Northern Environmental Science Program research projects across the park; and
  • Nine related to consultation on various park management activities, outstation proposals and film proposals.

Kakadu NESP

The NESP Indigenous Research Coordinator (IRC) position recently established within the Northern Land Council and located in Kakadu is an initiative developed in collaboration with the Kakadu Board of Management (KBoM), Parks Australia, the Northern Environmental Science Program (NESP) and the Northern Land Council.

The NESP position plays a major role in consulting Bininj /Mungguy on their involvement in adapting joint management approaches to achieve effective decisionmaking on Indigenous land management in Kakadu. This is accomplished by linking Bininj/Mungguy Traditional Owners and research scientists to identify areas across Kakadu that have significant cultural values and establish best practice models in looking after country.

A Kakadu Indigenous Research Steering Committee was formed with key Traditional Owners, KNP Indigenous rangers and a research scientist. It will meet bi-annually.

The Steering Committee evaluates and assesses scientific research projects planned across the park and provides advice and direction for the implementation of these projects.

In consultation with the Traditional Owners and scientists through the Steering Committee, three sites were selected to monitor and evaluate Healthy Country Indicators.

  • Stone country before and after fire management.
  • Floodplain country before and after para grass and feral animals.
  • Woodland country before and after weed and fire management.

NESP scientists and Traditional Owners have built strong working relationship with other Indigenous ranger groups in Kakadu and nearby, such as Njanjma, Djurrubu and Kakadu rangers from each district.

The Bininj/Mungguy Healthy Country Indicators project has created employment opportunities for Traditional Owners through their participation in research activities and site visits. The project is driven by the aspirations of Traditional Owners and supported by the knowledge of rangers and scientific research.

Nardab Site - Weed and Fire Control East Alligator District

Traditional Owners and KNP rangers over the years have seen how a healthy floodplain can quickly become overburdened with weeds resulting in the disappearance of wildlife. The project at Nardab was to establish Healthy Indicators by using a combined method of fire and aerial spraying to assess if the experiment would bring about a healthy change.

Nourglangie Camp Monitoring Healthy Indicators in the Jim Jim district

This project is focused on monitoring healthy indicators through the collection of yams and sugarbag ants. The monitoring process will be conducted over a number of visits to the site throughout the dry season.

The country is responding well to this combined approach of traditional knowledge and scientific research, with the return of bird life and restoration of natural habitats.

The Kakadu Indigenous Research Committee held their first meeting early in 2019 to discuss the NESP Heathy Country Indicators that have already been delivered in some districts. From this meeting, Jawoyn Traditional Owners requested that research commence on the effects of burning wattle trees and other seedlings around Jarrangbarnmi (Koolpin) Gorge. Traditional Owners also requested a case study on controlled burning and riverbank vegetation at Jarrangbarnmi.

Kooplin Gorge Planning Day

A planning day was held on the 25th June 2019 with TOs and NESP scientist at Jarrangbarnmi to discuss methods of monitoring the project.

A part of this project was taking young people back to country and providing input on management of country.

The young men were keen to take part and be involved in sharing their views of country and learn how to operate a drone.

The KIRC will continue to work closely with KNP on maintaining community consultation with Traditional Owners on all scientific research within the KNP that will be undertaken by universities, NT Government, NRM and local Aboriginal community organisations.

Information Technology

Information Technology - Data Collection, Mapping and Reporting

The Caring for Country Branch provides ICT training and support to all NLC ranger groups in asset and equipment acquisition, coordination of routine repairs and maintenance. It also provides onsite and remote support, including:

  • Documentation of ranger group ICT needs and budget preparation;
  • Training in the use of ICT equipment, including MS Teams, GIS/Mapping Software and other data management tools, such as Garmin BaseCamp, Garmin Virb Edit, GeoSetter and Google Earth;
  • Production of videos and other educational materials regarding ranger projects;
  • General day-to-day ICT support and troubleshooting; and
  • Assisting with the collection and management of data and preparation of reports, such as KMZ Google Earth reports.

The NLC receives funding from the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (Now NIAA) for a dedicated Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) Officer position.

The ICT Officer visits each ranger group at least twice a year and is in regular contact with the rangers to provide support.

2018/2019 has seen the full deployment of the Microsoft Teams unified communications platform to all ranger bases and the Darwin head office. MS Teams provides persistent workplace timelines and file storage integration. Each ranger group has its own “team” accessible by its members. Each team contains communication channels related to group activities updated by its members with reports, photos, comments and files providing all the required information detailing all the activities undertaken by the group.

The benefits of using MS Teams on an everyday basis are:

  • A unique centralised communication channel for reporting and every-day management;
  • A reduction in email communication; and
  • An easy access to a ranger group history and data for new employees

The IT Data Collection, Mapping and Reporting Curriculum Program has been deployed to all ranger bases.

Rangers already trained received support and new rangers are trained by the ICT support officer on site or remotely using TeamViewer.

The curriculum gives the rangers a better understanding of all processes involved in data collection and data management. Basic IT training has also been incorporated in the training program to address the skills gap for rangers not familiar with IT hardware and software.

The IT Data Collection, Mapping and Reporting Curriculum gives rangers a pathway to learn the skills required to provide accurate and comprehensible reports to the Caring for Country Branch, to the Traditional Owners and to their community. For practical reasons, the main camera used to collect geo-referenced photo is the Nikon P900 as the Garmin Virb is slowly phased out.

IT Data Collection, Mapping and Reporting Curriculum provides rangers a pathway to learn the skills required to provide accurate and comprehensive reports to the Caring for Country Branch, to the Traditional Owners and to their community.
Data Collection, Data Management Reporting

At the Carpentaria Land Council Indigenous Ranger Forum, Burketown, Qld

Training, Exchanges and Capacity Building

The Caring for Country Branch has endeavoured over the past few years to build baseline capacity among all rangers to ensure that work plans are undertaken competently and safely. This has led to increased capacity across the teams, enabling rangers to undertake more specific training and develop their workforce to take on fee-for-service contracts. In the 2018/2019 financial year, training was predominantly funded through WOC, but also supported by Workforce NT’s Aboriginal Responsive Skilling Grant (ARSG), which provides subsidised accredited and nonaccredited training to Indigenous employees. With the support from ARSG, the CFC Branch was able to receive more than $250,000 worth of additional training in 2018/2019. Across the CFC ranger teams, more than 70% of the workforce are qualified in the basic operational and WHS skills, including remote first aid, chainsaws, small engine maintenance, chemical handling, weed spraying, prescribed burning, coxswain Grade II, 4WD and recovery. With the additional support from Workforce NT, ranger teams were also able to undertake more upskilling courses, such as welding and incendiary training. With numerous contracts already established with our sea country teams, it was imperative that we focussed on maritime skills and fisheries compliance in the last financial year. More than 15 rangers from Bulgul, Wudiculpildyerr, Malak Malak, Garngi, Mardbalk, Yugul Mangi and Numbulwar ranger groups undertook their Coxswain Grade II (Certificate I in Maritime Operations) and their Certificate II and III in Fisheries Compliance.

Carpentaria Land Council Indigenous Ranger Forum, Burketown, Q/d

This has now enabled the baseline training for sea country management and boat handling. With the Certificate III in Fisheries Compliance, our Rangers are now able to work collaboratively with Water Police and apply to become a Fisheries Compliance Officer Grade I.

Key informal training and workshops:

  • CLCAC Indigenous Ranger Forum (Burketown)
  • NAQS Biosecurity Workshops (Darwin)
  • Territory Natural Resource Management (TNRM) Conference (Darwin)
  • 2019 North Australia Savanna Fire Forum (Darwin)

In line with the CFC career development and training pathways, the training team engaged with numerous more RTOs in this financial year than previously. We reengaged with Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education (BIITE) and now have seven ranger teams taking their Certificate II in Conservation and Land Management (CLM). Many rangers will have completed their course by the end of 2019, ready to begin their Certificate III or other qualifications early in 2020.

Aerial Coastline

Case Study

Case Study 1: Fisheries Compliance with Malak Malak Rangers, Water Police, Fisheries and AMFA

In mid-November 2018, Theresa Lemon from the Malak Malak Rangers began her training with Australian Maritime Fisheries Academy to undertake her Certificate III in Fisheries Compliance, the stepping stone to becoming a Fisheries Compliance Officer, which would allow her to assist water police in managing compliance on the Daly River.

With support from Fisheries (NTG DIPR), the course was completed in several intensive block units, both on country and in the classroom. The eight-month program allowed Theresa to continue her work as a ranger, but also build her skill sets and knowledge to ensure the training was done practically and effectively.

By having on-country learning and collaboration between two key agencies, Water Police and Fisheries, Theresa and other rangers were successful in completing their course without impacting on their workloads and ensured that the course remained relevant and students were not overwhelmed with work. Theresa is now one of only four NLC rangers who have completed the Certificate III in Fisheries Compliance and as the first woman in our Western Top End teams, she will help pave the way for more female rangers to undertake the same rigorous training to ensure that our sea country and rivers are looked after appropriately.

The 2018/2019 financial year was also a year of increased collaboration between new RTOs, organisations and independent ranger and land management teams.

With CFC’s regional approach, many of the CFC ranger teams enjoyed training projects together, ensuring that there were both sufficient numbers and a possible exchange of knowledge and skills. More than half of our rangers took part in ranger exchanges, non-accredited training and conferences, including attending the Carpentaria Land Council Aboriginal Corporation’s (CLCAC) Indigenous Ranger Forum, which was made possible from a partnership with the Department of Agriculture. Rangers were able to participate in a three-day event, undertaking informal training sessions, workshops and seminars with a focus on biosecurity and land management. Snake handling was a highlight of the forum, with most of our rangers having a go at learning to handle pythons and venomous snakes.

Other informal training sessions, which half of the CFC ranger teams attended, included a three-day session with the Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy (NAQS) where they learnt about aquaculture, plant pests and diseases. Ranger teams that have fee-forservice contracts with the Department of Agriculture were told about the need for better reporting on biosecurity threats.