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NOPSEMA regulates all offshore areas in Commonwealth waters (comprising the first three nautical miles of the territorial sea) and in coastal waters where regulatory powers and functions have been conferred.

As of 30 June 2019, Victoria continued to be the only jurisdiction to have conferred powers and functions on NOPSEMA for the regulation of health and safety and well integrity in Victorian waters. Discussions regarding the conferral of powers and functions continue with other jurisdictions.

The Joint Petroleum Development Area in the Timor Sea is regulated by the National Petroleum Authority (Autoridade Nacional do Petróleo) of Timor-Leste on behalf of the Australian Government and the Government of Timor-Leste.