Note 5.2: Financial Instruments
Note 5.2A - Categories of financial instruments
Loans and receivables
Cash and cash equivalents
Receivables for goods and services
Fixed term deposit with a bank
Total loans and receivables
Total financial assets
Financial liabilities measured at amortised cost
Total financial liabilities measured at amortised cost
Total financial liabilities
With the implementation of AASB 9 Financial Instruments for the first time in 2019, the NLA classifies its financial assets as financial assets measured at amortised cost. This classification was determined through examination of both the NLA's business model for managing the financial assets and contractual cash flow characteristics at the time of initial recognition. Financial assets are recognised when the NLA becomes a party to the contract and, as a consequence, has a legal right to receive or a legal obligation to pay cash and derecognised when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire or are transferred upon trade date.
Financial assets at amortised cost
Financial assets included in this category need to meet two criteria:
1. the financial asset is held in order to collect the contractual cash flows; and
2. the cash flows are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal outstanding amount.
Amortised cost is determined using the effective interest method.
Effective interest method
Income is recognised on an effective interest rate basis for financial assets that are recognised at amortised cost.
Impairment of financial assets
Financial assets are assessed for impairment at the end of each reporting period based on Expected Credit Losses, using the general approach which measures the loss allowance based on an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses where risk has significantly increased, or an amount equal to 12‐month expected credit losses if risk has not increased.
The simplified approach for trade, contract and lease receivables is used. This approach always measures the loss allowance as the amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses.
A write-off constitutes a derecognition event where the writeoff directly reduces the gross carrying amount of the financial asset.
Financial liabilities are classified as either financial liabilities ‘at fair value through profit or loss’ or other financial liabilities. Financial liabilities are recognised and derecognised upon ‘trade date’.
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are initially measured at fair value. Subsequent fair value adjustments are recognised in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognised in profit or loss incorporates any interest paid on the financial liability.
Financial liabilities at amortised cost
Financial liabilities, including borrowings, are initially measured at fair value, net of transaction costs. These liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, with interest expense recognised on an effective interest basis.
Supplier and other payables are recognised at amortised cost. Liabilities are recognised to the extent that the goods or services have been received (and irrespective of having been invoiced).
Note 5.2B - Net gains and losses from financial assets
Loans and receivables
Net gain loans and receivables
Net gain on financial assets