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Results

Performance measure 1

Link to ASADA strategic pillars

Engagement and Partnerships

Outcome

Achievement in building the collective capability of the anti-doping community.

Measure

ASADA engages and contributes its expertise with international stakeholders at forums, through information sharing and Memorandums of Understanding, so Australian athletes can compete on a level playing field wherever that may be.

Criterion source

Corporate Plan (p. 12)

Methodology

International meetings and forums and Memorandums of Understanding.

Target

Contributes expertise at key international anti-doping forums, such as the WADA Symposium.

Provision of assistance to build capability to ≥2 other counterpart international anti-doping organisations, including to adopt proactive joint approach with Drug Free Sport New Zealand to build the anti-doping capacity in the Oceania region.

Result

MET

Performance measure analysis

ASADA’s work continued to place Australia’s NADO at the forefront of global anti-doping efforts in sport. Its expertise was sought after, whether it be presenting at international conferences or helping to strengthen the anti-doping capabilities of its international partners.

ASADA contributed expertise at in excess of 15 key international anti-doping fora.

ASADA provided assistance to build capability of 10 other counterpart international anti-doping organisations.

Highlights from 2019–20 included:

Building international capacity

Australia’s anti-doping program operates in an international context as part of a global system of anti-doping regulation. The revised World Anti-Doping Code, to come into effect on 1 January 2021, has seen ASADA engaging with global counterparts to ensure ASADA is able to meet the increasing compliance demands and greater expectations required from NADOs.

While ASADA will always continue to improve its own operations and the strength of the Australian sports integrity landscape, it is crucial the agency learns from others and uses and shares its skills, experience and capabilities to build the capacity of its international anti-doping partners to protect the rights of Australian athletes and all clean athletes on the global stage.

In 2019–20, in partnership with WADA, ASADA delivered programs in the Oceania and Asian regions for coordinating the engagement and development of NADO capabilities through the respective Regional Anti-Doping Organisations (RADO). In supporting Australian athletes being able to compete on a level playing field, wherever that may be, ASADA’s assistance to build capacity and to strengthen regional and global anti-doping efforts extended to:

  • Drug Free Sport New Zealand (DFSNZ)
  • Sri Lanka Anti-Doping Agency (SLADA)
  • India National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA)
  • Korea Anti-Doping Agency (KADA)
  • Oceania Regional Anti-Doping Organisation (ORADO)
  • Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA)
  • Anti-Doping Agency Austria (NADA Austria)
  • Anti-Doping Denmark (ADD)
  • China Anti-Doping Agency (CHINADA)
  • United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA)
Partnership with Drug Free Sport New Zealand

Throughout 2019–20, ASADA worked closely with our partners from DFSNZ to initiate new ways to support clean athletes and detect doping in the region, including the month-long secondment of 2 ASADA staff to DFSNZ. Both agencies are focused on a proactive joint approach to build anti-doping capacity in the Oceania region.

In January 2020, ASADA, DFSNZ and the Australian Sports Drug Testing Laboratory (ASDTL) established a collaborative Athlete Passport Management Unit (APMU). An APMU is responsible for reviewing the athlete biological passport and making recommendations for follow up actions. The Korea Anti-Doping Agency (KADA) and Oceania Regional Anti-Doping Organisation (ORADO) are both clients of the APMU. Through the APMU, collaboration between the agencies has been enhanced including supporting capability development in KADA and ORADO.

In addition, ASADA and DFSNZ worked closely on several education projects, including the Clean Sport 101 online course targeted to young and emerging athletes and the world first Health Effects of Doping Augmented Reality app. Both these resources are now available to athletes, students and support persons across both Australia and New Zealand.

International fora

ASADA took a proactive and strategic approach to building and maintaining global partnerships. During 2019–20, ASADA contributed to global discussions, shared its expertise and showed leadership through participating and hosting several international forums, including:

  • ORADO Board Meeting
  • 2019 Samoa Pacific Games
  • First session of CHINADA International Anti-Doping Symposium
  • Providing Intelligence training for the SLADA in partnership with the Australian Federal Police
  • WADA September Executive Committee Meeting
  • International Anti-Doping Seminar in Asia & Oceania
  • 18th Annual USADA Symposium on Anti-Doping Science
  • NADA (India) hosted Regional Symposium on Anti-Doping
  • IADA October meeting
  • WADA November Executive Committee Meeting
  • iNADO CEO Forum
  • WADA World Conference on Doping in Sport
  • WADA Foundation Board Meeting
  • DFSNZ Anti-Doping Leadership Forum
  • APMU Training by WADA
  • International Conference on the implementation of the revised World Anti-Doping Code
  • WADA January Executive Committee Meeting
  • INTERPOL meeting on the supply of prohibited substances.

Also, during this reporting period, Australia was selected to host the third WADA Global Education Conference (GEC). The GEC will bring together anti-doping education practitioners and researchers from around the world to discuss new education policy, share education resources and highlight emerging trends, as well as examine how Anti-Doping Organisations can enhance their education programs to support athletes and athlete support personnel. Originally scheduled for late 2020, WADA decided to postpone the GEC due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. It has been rescheduled to be held in November 2021 in Sydney.

Performance measure 2

Link to ASADA strategic pillars

Education and Awareness

Outcome

Achievement of ASADA legislation and the World Anti-Doping Code awareness amongst sporting organisations, athletes and support personnel

Measure

Percentage of sporting organisations, athletes and support personnel aware of ASADA legislation and the World Anti-Doping Code

Criterion source

Corporate Plan (p. 12)

Methodology

Annual stakeholder survey 1

Target

≥80% level of awareness

Result

MET

1ASADA’s 2019–20 stakeholder survey was contracted to a service provider and sent to 18,746 people comprising athletes, support personnel and sporting organisation representatives with 1,303 respondents to the survey.

Performance measure analysis

Athletes, sporting organisations and support personnel who responded to the 2020 Stakeholder Survey identified:

  • 96.5% are aware1 of ASADA legislation
  • 97.9% are aware2 of the World Anti-Doping Code.

Trend

Figure 3: Awareness of ASADA legislation and the World Anti-Doping Code

Performance measure 3

Link to ASADA strategic pillars

Education and Awareness

Outcome

Achievement of satisfaction with anti-doping education and awareness raising activities in the sporting community.

Measure

Percentage of national sporting organisations, athletes and support personnel who are satisfied with anti-doping education and awareness raising programs.

Criterion source

Portfolio Budget Statements (p. 232)

Corporate Plan (p. 12)

Methodology

Education participant feedback survey

Target

≥80% level of satisfaction

Result

MET

Performance measure analysis

Of the national sporting organisations, athletes and support personnel who completed an education course in 2019–20:

  • 89% were satisfied with ASADA's Level 1 Anti-Doping course3
  • 89% were satisfied with ASADA's Level 2 Anti-Doping course4
  • 99% believed they were more informed about how to avoid inadvertently breaking the anti-doping rules.

Trend

Figure 4: Satisfaction with ASADA anti-doping education and awareness raising activities

Trend Data: ASADA's Level 2 Anti-Doping course5

Educational performance

ASADA recognises education is critical to protecting athletes and minimising the risk of doping in sport. In 2019–20, ASADA enhanced its education strategy by increasing the number of face-to-face education sessions despite the difficulties encountered during the COVID-19 pandemic and continuing to embrace innovation and technology to deliver a leading anti-doping education program.

Since launching ASADA e-Learning in 2010, more than 100,000 people from across the sporting community and educational institutions have accessed a variety of online learning options. In these courses, participants learn about the key areas of anti-doping such as prohibited substances and methods, Therapeutic Use Exemptions, Doping Control and Whereabouts.

In 2019–20, respondents to ASADA's e-Learning Anti-Doping Level 1 course identified the following:

  • 93% learned new things about anti-doping
  • 86% of users said the course (all six modules) was relevant to their needs
  • 90% thought the activities within the course helped me learn the material.

In addition, a majority of athletes who attended face-to-face education sessions provided feedback and 99% reported that they more informed, and our Clean Sport Educators received an average rating of 9.5/10 from participants.

Performance measure 4

Link to ASADA strategic pillars

Education and Awareness

Outcome

Achievement in anti-doping education and awareness-raising.

Measure

Delivery of anti-doping education and awareness-raising resources to athletes and support personnel.

Criterion source

Corporate Plan (p. 13)

Methodology

a) Number of athletes and support personnel reached through core education products

b) Education outputs and education survey results from targeted high-risk sports1

c) Education outputs and survey of teachers

d) App statistics

Target

Target includes:

(a) Core education products delivered to 20,000 athletes and support personnel

(b) Tailored online and/or face-to-face anti-doping education products produced for ≥ 3 high-risk sports

(c) ≥3 professional development program2 for teachers delivered across Australia that are based on the anti-doping element of the National Health and Physical Education Curriculum

(d) 10,000 downloads or visits of the ASADA app3

Result

PARTIALLY MET

1High-risk sports are determined through an ASADA intelligence assessment, including inputs from the ASADA Compliance program.

2Professional development programs for teachers to teach anti-doping content to students.

3The ASADA app is provides athletes with timely anti-doping information and access to online anti-doping education.

Performance measure analysis

In 2019-20:

  1. ASADA delivered 31,610 core education products to athletes and support personnel:
    • 4,185 completions of Level 1 and Level 2 online modules
    • 173 face-to-face presentation6 to ~7,425 attendees (81% increase on attendees in 2018–19).
  2. ​ASADA tailored online and/or face-to-face anti-doping education products for 16 high-risk sports
  3. ASADA delivered one professional development program to Health and Physical Education teachers at the Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) Western Australia Conference
  4. More than 16,000 people downloaded the ASADA app.

Trend

Figure 5: Completions of Level 1 and Level 2 online education modules

Clean Sport Educators

In 2018–19, ASADA hired several elite current and former Australian athletes to form a new team of Clean Sport Educators. All presenters had extensive involvement in sport and are well placed to share their anti-doping experiences with athletes.

During the 2019–20 period, the Clean Sport Educators were critical to ASADA’s increased ability to resource face-to-face sessions and they assisted in the delivery of 161 education sessions and 12 Outreach Education and Awareness stands.

Intelligence–informed education

Education was a critical part of ASADA’s anti-doping program and ASADA’s education resources were targeted according to internal risk assessments and intelligence reports. In addition, no face-to-face session is the same, with the content of each session informed by intelligence from across the agency.

In 2019–20:

  • ASADA tailored online and/or face-to-face anti-doping education products for 16 high-risk sports
  • 74% of sport face-to-face sessions were delivered to those in the high-risk category
  • ASADA’s 142 face-to-face sessions with sports were delivered across the full spectrum of the athlete pathway, with 41% delivered at the elite level and 48% at the sub-elite level, in response to intelligence reports suggesting the sub-elite level was the greatest risk in a number of sports.

Figure 6: Education face-to-face sessions to sports delivered by athlete level

Health effects

A key focus for the Education team in 2019–20 was increasing awareness of the health effects of doping. As part of this, ASADA developed a new mobile app titled the ‘Health Effects of Doping’.

Through the app, users create their own avatar who (unfortunately) experiences all the health effects of certain substances. By using the phone’s camera, users can peer inside their avatar to see how performance enhancing drugs change their organs and nervous system.

Specifically, the app looks at the effects of steroids, stimulants, EPO, HGH, SARMs and opioids. Stroke, liver damage, tumours and anxiety are just a few of the side effects of prohibited substances covered in the app.

ASADA also developed a student worksheet for high school teachers to use in class, which complements the national, state and territory Health and Physical Education curriculums for stages 5 and 6, as well as a series of videos on the health effects of doping, in partnership with the United States Anti-Doping Agency.

Sport integrity in schools

In partnership with NISU, ASADA offered free lesson plans for teachers on sport integrity issues, fitting within the Australian National Health and Physical Education curriculum. These were designed to promote values of fair play, integrity and clean sport at a young age, while attitudes are still being formed.

In 2019–20, ASADA continued its commitment to help promote sport integrity in schools by working directly with high school teachers across Australia to provide professional development training opportunities and by offering free visits to schools teaching sport integrity already.

In the past year, ASADA delivered 31 school sessions to students across Australia. In addition, although aiming to deliver 3 or more, ASADA delivered one professional development program to Health and Physical Education teachers at the Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) Western Australia conference.

Two other sessions were planned at the ACHPER South Australia Conference and ACHPER New South Wales Conference; however, one was cancelled and the other restructured due to COVID-19.

Regardless, ASADA continued to engage with schools by promoting the new online resource ‘Clean Sport 101’ for school age students and developing a Secondary Schools Resource Kit to be launched in 2020.

Clean Sport app

In 2019–20, ASADA updated its highly successful Clean Sport app to include several new features for the benefit of athletes, with more than 16,000 downloads across the year.

One key change was the introduction of a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) checker to enable athletes to easily determine whether they need an in-advance TUE for a particular medication. This will reduce the administrative burden on athletes and medical practitioners significantly.

In addition, the app also now includes strict warnings if athletes search for supplements ASADA is aware advertised banned ingredients on their nutrition labels.

In the past financial year, more than 16,000 people downloaded the app. This is a 28% increase in the number of app downloads from the previous year.

As at 30 June 2020, the ASADA Clean Sport app has been downloaded more than 31,000 times.

Online courses

In 2019–20, ASADA released 2 new online courses targeting specific audiences.

  • Clean Sport 101

In January 2020, ASADA released the world-first Clean Sport 101 course developed to help younger and recreational level athletes understand anti-doping rules applying to them. The course was developed in response to feedback that the Level 1 course was sometimes too technical for younger athletes. In response, Clean Sport 101 was developed, which focuses on supporting athletes at the beginning of their sporting careers and on the ‘why’ behind the anti-doping rules. Importantly, it was written and tested at year 5 comprehension level, making the rules easier to understand for all ages.

The course was also developed with input from Drug Free Sport New Zealand (DFSNZ) and ASADA built and developed the same course for New Zealand athletes, which is now hosted on the DFSNZ Learning Management System.

This course had an 88% satisfaction rating from respondents.

  • Whereabouts course

Another course launched in 2019–20 was the Whereabouts course, developed in partnership with Swimming Australia. This course targets athletes in the Registered and Domestic Testing Pools specifically to help them understand their whereabouts obligations, technical requirements and the consequences of failing to comply. It is now promoted to all athletes across all sports prior to their inclusion on the Whereabouts system.

This course had a 91% satisfaction rating from respondents.

Performance measure 5

Link to ASADA strategic pillars

Engagement and Partnerships

Outcome

Achievement in compliance with anti-doping requirements.

Measure

Percentage of recognised sports assessed under the ASADA Compliance Framework that meet ASADA’s compliance requirements.1

Criterion source

Portfolio Budget Statements (p. 231)

Corporate Plan (p. 14)

Methodology

Direct sourcing from sports and desk research.

Target

≥80% compliance

Result

MET

1ASADA’s Compliance Framework is based on a sport being compliant with all aspects of the ASADA Act, ASADA Regulations and World Anti-Doping Code, which jointly establish the requirements all recognised sports must comply with.

Performance measure analysis

ASADA’s operating model struck a balance between remaining independent, maintaining the confidence of sports and working with stakeholders across the sporting community to minimise the risk of doping. Influencing ASADA’s direction is the knowledge doping has become increasingly sophisticated and complex. Its reach spans from grassroots sports to the elite levels. In 2019–20, ASADA continued to deliver a compliance monitoring program focused on achieving positive outcomes through partnerships with all stakeholders.

In 2018–19, 91% of funded and recently funded National Sporting Organisations (NSO) (67) were reported as compliant.

In 2019–20, 86% of funded and recently funded NSOs (68) were reported as compliant7. The NSOs reported as non-compliant were categorised as such due to not meeting ASADA’s anti-doping education requirements. Sport Integrity Australia will continue to work with these NSOs to develop education strategies to ensure compliance in the next reporting period.

Implementing the new Operating Framework and Compliance Standards

In 2019–20, ASADA implemented its new Sport Engagement Operating Framework and Compliance Standards, which categorises sports more accurately by doping risk. The Operating Framework sets out the specific compliance expectations for sports in each category. Those sports classified as Category 1 (being the sports with the highest doping risk) now require the highest standard of compliance.

ASADA undertook a baseline assessment of all sports with an Anti-Doping Policy against the new Compliance Model and developed engagement plans to assist sports with increasing compliance. Sport Integrity Australia will drive the implementation of the Engagement Plans in 2020–21.

In February 2020, ASADA conducted a survey to identify knowledge gaps regarding anti-doping within sporting organisations as well as to help guide the development of resources to assist sports with their anti-doping obligations. 45 NSOs provided a combined 156 responses on various issues. Responses were received from 80% of ASADA Category 1 classed sports and 33% of ASADA Category 2 classed sports.

Key results from the survey were:

  • NSOs have knowledge gaps in using the ASADA Clean Sport app and Global DRO8resources
  • NSOs would benefit from additional information on their role when an athlete or support personnel within their organisation is subject to an ADRV
  • NSOs are most interested in multi-sport workshops and e-Learning modules to receive education/ information from ASADA
  • NSOs requested more information about anti-doping education, the testing process and NSO compliance
  • NSOs promote the anti-doping message mainly through email, their website and social media
  • NSOs mainly use ASADA online resources and printed resources to promote anti-doping and educate their members

Performance measure 6

Link to ASADA strategic pillars

Intelligence

Outcome

Achievement in delivering effective anti-doping intelligence and investigative functions.

Measure

Percentage of national sporting organisations, athletes and support personnel who consider ASADA’s intelligence and investigative functions to be effective at deterring athletes and support personnel from doping.

Criterion Source

Portfolio Budget Statements (p. 232)

Corporate Plan (p. 14)

Methodology

Annual stakeholder survey1

Target

≥80% level of satisfaction

Result

MET

1ASADA’s 2019–20 stakeholder survey was contracted to a service provider and sent to 18,746 people comprising athletes, support personnel and sporting organisation representatives with 1,303 respondents to the survey.

Performance measure analysis

Of the 1017 NSO staff, athletes and support personnel who provided a rating in response to the 2020 Stakeholder Survey, 85% rated ASADA’s 'intelligence' and 'investigative' functions as effective at deterring athletes and support personnel from doping.

Trend

Figure 7: ASADA’s 'intelligence' and 'investigative' functions effectiveness at deterring athletes and support personnel from doping

Performance measure 7

Link to ASADA strategic pillars

Engagement and Partnerships

Outcome

Achievement in the demonstrated sharing of anti-doping intelligence with external stakeholders.

Measure

Collecting and providing timely, high-quality intelligence and undertaking assessments that inform the picture of doping in Australia and overseas.

Criterion source

Corporate Plan (p. 14)

Methodology

Feedback from external stakeholders and stakeholder survey1

Target

80% level of client satisfaction with at least 12 intelligence reports provided to external stakeholders

Result

PARTIALLY MET

1ASADA’s 2019–20 stakeholder survey was contracted to a service provider and sent to 18,746 people comprising athletes, support personnel and sporting organisation representatives with 1,303 respondents to the survey.

Performance measure analysis

In 2018–19, for respondents to the 2019 Stakeholder Survey who, as representatives of their respective national sporting organisation, participated in the exchange of information with ASADA:

  • 94% of the 35 respondents rated the relevance of information received from ASADA as very good or good9
  • 91% of the 34 respondents indicated the benefits, in terms of detection, of the information received from ASADA was very good or good10

In 2019–20, for respondents to the 2020 Stakeholder Survey who, as representatives of their respective national sporting organisation, participated in the exchange of information with ASADA:

  • 72% of the 25 respondents rated the relevance of information received from ASADA as very good or good11
  • 72.7% of the 22 respondents rated the benefits, in terms of detection, of the information received from ASADA was very good or good12

From 2018–19 to 2019–20 there were fewer respondents to the survey questions related to this performance measure, more of whom assessed the rating as ‘moderate’, which has led to a lower percentage of ‘very good’ or ‘good’ ratings. With this lower response rate the rating does not meet ASADA’s target of 80% satisfaction. Sport Integrity Australia will work with the relevant national sporting organisations to understand the background and address any issues.

While the Stakeholder Survey captures the aggregated value of ASADA intelligence provided to external stakeholders, ASADA Intelligence also received specific feedback from some stakeholders who indicated that the dissemination of ASADA’s intelligence was the catalyst for intervention measures they implemented. Specific feedback included 2 sporting administration bodies who disseminated information to their respective members about the anti-doping rule violation ‘prohibited association’ (as per the World Anti-Doping Code).

ASADA intelligence reports

In 2019–20, 101 Intelligence Reports were disseminated to external stakeholders, including WADA, NADOs, sporting bodies, law enforcement and intelligence agencies and government regulators.

The dissemination of Intelligence Reports has significantly increased in 2019–20 compared to 2018–19. This increased dissemination reflects enhanced investment in the intelligence function at ASADA and relationships with external partners. This collaboration is a key component to achieving ASADA's objectives.

In addition, in a continued effort to open lines of communication and share information with sporting bodies, ASADA partnered with NISU and Sport Australia to produce and distribute 4 information bulletins titled ‘Sport Integrity Matters’. The bulletins were designed to keep sporting bodies informed about current and emerging sports integrity issues affecting sport. A key goal of the bulletin was to be a conversation starter; a strategy to inform sporting bodies and to demystify the complex world of doping in sport.

Intelligence sharing

The abuse of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) is an issue concerning a range of law enforcement agencies and regulators in Australia and internationally. ASADA has several information sharing agreements in place with organisations to facilitate the inter-agency sharing of information of mutual operational interest.

ASADA is committed to sharing intelligence with international partners to combat the global use, trafficking and supply of PIEDs. This includes law enforcement and other NADOs.

In 2019–20, ASADA continued to focus on strengthening operational partnerships with key stakeholders including:

  • Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA)
  • Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission (ACIC)
  • Australian Border Force (ABF)
  • Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA)
  • Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA)
  • Australian Federal Police (AFP) and state and territory police
  • INTERPOL and Europol.

​​

Performance measure 8

Link to ASADA strategic pillars

Intelligence

Outcome

Achievement in intelligence-led anti-doping program.

Measure

Number of total referrals1 to the testing program based on intelligence reports.2

Criterion source

Corporate Plan (p. 14)

Methodology

Intelligence referrals

Target

600 intelligence reports referred to testing

Result

NOT MET

1Total referrals include both high-risk referrals and low-risk referrals.

2An intelligence report contains information collected, evaluated and disseminated to inform operational decision-making. It may be produced in connection with a tip-off, notification from an external organisation, or be derived from internal sources, such as field staff observations, or the review of analytical results by ASADA’s Science team. A higher percentage of testing based on intelligence reports is desirable, represents better value for money and is more effective over testing that was simply risk-led, random or based on place-getter strategies.

Performance measure analysis

In 2018–19, a total of 466 intelligence reports were referred to testing, comprising:

  • 263 Scientific Analysis Reports (SAR)13
  • 203 tip-offs, social media reports, and external and internal notifications.

In 2019–20, while the target of 600 intelligence reports referred to testing was not met, a total of 418 intelligence reports informed anti-doping testing and programs, comprising:

  • 177 SARs
  • 241 tip-offs, social media reports, Field Incident Reports, and external and internal notifications.

Anti-doping programs encompass a range of preventive and detection activities, including education and testing. Effective anti-doping activities rely on information from a broad array of sources and on the analysis of that information to create intelligence, which informs all manner of decision-making in ASADA. Intelligence shapes decisions around:

  • which athletes to test and when
  • which sports are most at risk of doping
  • what emerging substances pose a threat to athlete health and sport integrity.

In 2019–20, ASADA’s intelligence capability continued to inform ASADA’s operational areas and provided advice on:

  • further targeted testing
  • re-analysis of samples in long-term storage
  • further information gathering
  • assistance with governance
  • education
  • investigations.

Over the past year ASADA’s enhanced intelligence capability contributed to ASADA’s testing program through the provision of strategic, operational and tactical intelligence products. The products directly informed the development of ASADA’s test distribution plan by identifying areas of risk and trends within and across sports. At the tactical level, the products also directly inform the specific testing plans for individual athletes.

Although ASADA did not meet the quantitative performance target for this measure, ASADA’s intelligence capability has continued to effectively influence the anti-doping program as demonstrated in performance measure 9.

Anti-doping testing program and COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic and the Government-imposed restrictions on travel movements and public gathering in the last quarter of 2019–20 caused less sport to be played across Australia, resulting in a reduction of the number of tests conducted.

To combat the ongoing risk of COVID-19, strict procedures were developed for the testing of athletes during this time.

A reduction of the number of SARs in 2019–20 is in part due to the effect of COVID-19 on ASADA’s testing program. The Athlete Biological Passport is built from the analytical data from the laboratory analysis of athlete samples. A decrease in the collection of samples from athletes has direct follow on effects on the amount of data available for review and hence the number of SARs.

Sample collection (also known as doping control or drug testing) is an essential part of detecting doping in sport. ASADA’s testing program includes a combination of Government-funded and User-Pays arrangements14 and is supported by a scientific, intelligence and investigations-driven targeted test distribution plan.

Testing is conducted in-competition and out-of-competition and is based on no-advance notice, which acts as a deterrent to athletes, who are subject to testing anytime, anywhere and without warning.

In 2018–19, ASADA conducted a total of 5,523 tests across 52 sports:

  • 2,875 Government-funded tests (948 in-competition and 1,927 out-of-competition tests)
  • 2,648 User-pays tests (832 in-competition and 1,816 out-of-competition tests).

In 2019–20, ASADA conducted a total of 4,414 tests across 57 sports:

  • 2,224 Government-funded tests (619 in-competition and 1605 out-of-competition tests)
  • 2,190 User-pays tests (643 in-competition and 1547 out-of-competition tests).

Figure 8: Trend data: Tests conducted by ASADA

Performance measure 9

Link to ASADA strategic pillars

Intelligence

Outcome

Achievement in intelligence-led anti-doping program.

Measure

Number of intelligence-led operational activities1on high-risk athletes.2

Criterion source

Corporate Plan (p. 15)

Methodology

Intelligence data

Testing data

Education data

Target

≥90 intelligence-led operational activities carried out on high-risk athletes.

Result

MET

1An operational activity can include targeted testing, investigation, targeted education and/or intelligence probe.

2A high-risk athlete is an athlete who is the subject of ASADA’s Target Athlete Monitoring processes, an intelligence probe or an investigation.

Performance measure analysis

In 2018–19, ASADA carried out 128 intelligence-informed operational activities on high-risk athletes. This included:

  • 57 tailored face-to-face education sessions completed on identified high-risk sports
  • 71 Target Athlete Monitoring cases created during the period.

ASADA carried out 133 intelligence-led operational activities on high-risk athletes in 2019–20. This included:

  • 105 tailored face-to-face education sessions completed on identified high-risk sports
  • 28 Target Athlete Monitoring (TAM) cases created during the period with 152 testing missions conducted on TAM athletes.

Further, the development of the yearly ASADA Test Distribution Plan (TDP) was informed by intelligence holdings, influencing the allocation of testing numbers to higher risk sports.

Face-to-face education

In 2019–20, ASADA delivered 105 face-to-face education sessions to athletes included in ASADA-identified high-risk sports. In preparing each of these presentations, the Education team sought input from all operational business teams to understand the threats to each individual cohort. This information enabled the Education team to tailor each presentation to the needs of each audience.

A focus of the face-to-face sessions was to supplement awareness and the rising prevalence of prohibited substances classified as SARMs. The sessions included the use of actual off-the-shelf supplement bottles and the ASADA Clean Sport app to enable greater understanding of the risks athletes face with supplements, as well as imagery and case studies sourced from government and law enforcement partners to show the production environment of SARMs.

On completion of each education session, ASADA sought feedback. In 2019–20, 99% of respondents stated they felt better informed following the face‑to‑face session.

ASADA also used the experience of Intelligence and Investigations staff in presentations, drawing on the expertise within ASADA to co-present to certain groups.

Target Athlete Monitoring

Athletes are allocated to the TAM program when assessed to have an increased risk of doping. The assessment may include review of biological variations in their ABP, review of changes in performance or ASADA receiving actionable intelligence.

Further actions in relation to athletes on the TAM may include additional laboratory analysis, additional targeted testing, review by external experts, or other operational responses, as deemed necessary. The risk of doping is reassessed throughout the process.

In 2019–20, 152 testing missions were conducted on athletes on the TAM.

Test Distribution Plan

The TDP is the overarching planning document ASADA used to plan testing missions through the year, allocating a certain proportion of missions to sports according to several factors, which form part of an overall risk assessment of a particular sport.

One of the factors used in the risk assessment is intelligence received and developed in relation to a sport. In 2019–20, ASADA effectively used intelligence holdings to support the development of the TDP, influencing the number of testing missions in sports with higher risks for doping

Performance measure 10

Link to ASADA strategic pillars

Intelligence

Outcome

Achievement in intelligence-led anti-doping program.

Measure

Investment in intelligence leads to matters referred to investigations.

Criterion source

Corporate Plan (p. 15)

Methodology

Adverse Analytical Findings

Investigations

Target

15 intelligence-led products1 referred to investigations

Result

MET

1An intelligence-led product is a referral to Investigations concerning a person or other entity ASADA held intelligence on, and where that intelligence was responsible for the decision to refer the matter to investigations, or was primarily responsible for the testing of an athlete, which led to a positive test.

Performance measure analysis

The selection of athletes for testing uses multiple sources of intelligence.

In 2018–19, there were 15 intelligence-led referrals to investigations comprising:

  • 11 Adverse Analytical Findings (based on intelligence-led testing)
  • 4 information/intelligence reports (consisting of 3 external notifications and one tip off).

In 2019–20, there were 16 intelligence-led products referred to investigations, 11 of which related to Adverse Analytical Findings, and 5 which related to non-analytical ADRV matters.

  • 2 athletes were selected for testing based on specific intelligence received and assessed by the Intelligence Team
  • 9 athletes were selected for testing based on other risk factors identified by Science and Sports Operations (e.g. based on science recommendation or performance improvement identified by a Sports Operations Officer)
  • 5 non-analytical ADRV-related matters were referred to investigations, based on specific recommendation from the Intelligence team.
Adverse Analytical Findings

Science is a central component to an effective anti-doping program. ASADA’s scientists contribute to inform all aspects of ASADA operations. Scientific expertise is crucial in the detection of athletes who use prohibited substances or methods to enhance their performance. ASADA’s scientists guide research and collaborate with other anti-doping experts to remain aware of the latest research and advances in methods and practices that detect and deter the use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport.

Close collaboration between ASADA’s scientists and WADA-accredited laboratories around the world is important to the implementation of a strong detection program. The detection of a prohibited substance in a sample collected from an athlete is known as an Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF).

AAFs related to 16 athletes were progressed to investigations. A further 9 AAFs did not progress to investigations due to the athlete having a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) or having used an allowed route of administration.

The selection of athletes for testing utilises multiple sources of intelligence. Of the 16 athletes with AAFs progressing to investigations, 2 athletes were selected for testing based on specific intelligence received and assessed by the Intelligence Team and a further 9 athletes were selected for testing based on other risk factors.

Non-Analytical ADRVs

Traditionally, doping has been detected by testing athletes to identify the presence of a prohibited substance to establish an AAF. However, the presence of a prohibited substance is only one of the 10 Anti-Doping Rule Violations. To prove the remaining 9 non-analytical ADRVs we need to conduct an appropriately thorough investigation. This, together with the increasing sophistication of doping, means that all ADRVs will increasingly be established through methods other than just testing.

Non-analytical ADRVs may emanate from an array of sources including (but not limited to) referrals from law enforcement and other government agencies, tip-offs from the public and sports, referrals from counterpart national anti-doping agencies, self-generated intelligence from ASADA and identification through associated investigations. In the reporting period 5 non-analytical ADRVs emanating from the Intelligence Team were referred to the Investigation Team.

Performance measure 11

Link to ASADA strategic pillars

Intelligence

Outcome

Achievement in compliance with investigations standards.

Measure

Percentage of investigations conducted by ASADA that are in compliance with the Australian Government Investigations Standards and International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

Criterion source

Corporate Plan (p. 15)

Methodology

Notification of breaches of investigation standards through Tribunal decisions and/or ASADA legal identification

Target

≥90% of investigations comply with standards.

Result

MET

Performance measure analysis

The ASADA Investigations team conduct investigations in accordance with the ASADA Investigation Manual, which accords with Australian Government Investigation Standards (AGIS) and WADA’s International Standard for Testing and Investigations (ISTI).

In 2018–19, ASADA conducted 35 investigations, all in accordance with investigations standards.

In 2019–20, ASADA conducted 24 investigations, all in accordance with investigations standards.

ASADA received no notifications of breaches of investigation standards through Tribunal decisions and/or ASADA internal legal team identification.

Investigations

Traditionally, ASADA detected doping by testing blood and urine samples collected from an athlete to identify the presence of a prohibited substance. However, the presence of a prohibited substance is only one of 10 Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRV) listed in the World Anti-Doping Code. To prove the remaining 9 ADRVs, a significant contribution through contemporary investigative methodologies is required. This, together with the increasing sophistication of doping, means all ADRVs will increasingly be established through methods other than testing.

ASADA has investigative and intelligence capabilities to:

  • obtain, assess and process anti-doping intelligence from all available sources to form the basis of an investigation into a possible doping violation
  • investigate atypical findings and adverse passport findings
  • investigate any other analytical or non-analytical information or intelligence that indicates a possible doping violation.
Disclosure Notices

Under ASADA legislation, the CEO can issue a Disclosure Notice requiring an individual or entity to assist with an investigation. This notice can require they:

  • attend an interview to answer questions
  • give information
  • produce documents or things.

The CEO can only issue a Disclosure Notice if the CEO believes the person has information, documents or things that may be relevant to the administration of the ASADA Regulations. Three members of the ADRVP must agree in writing that the CEO’s belief is reasonable.

Subsection 74(1) of the ASADA Act requires the CEO to report the following information relating to Disclosure Notices in its annual report.

ASADA's CEO issued 43 Disclosure Notices to 17 individuals or entities in 2019–20. A number of individuals received more than one Disclosure Notice e.g. one to attend interview, one to give information and/or one to produce documents or things. Four of these Disclosure Notices were not served and a further 2 were later withdrawn due to the pandemic. There were also 2 replacement Disclosure Notices issued due to claims of hardship, which have not been counted in the above.

Performance measure 12

Link to ASADA strategic pillars

Intelligence

Outcome

Achievement of anti-doping rule violation findings in tribunals.

Measure

Percentage of investigations conducted by ASADA and referred to the ADRVP that result in a finding of an anti-doping rule violation.

Criterion source

Corporate Plan (p. 15)

Methodology

ADRVP findings

Target

≥80% of ADRVP findings result in an anti-doping rule violation

Result

MET

Performance measure analysis

In 2018–19, 100% of investigations matters referred to the ADRVP resulted in a finding of an ADRV.

In 2019–20, investigations matters referred to the ADRVP resulted in a finding of an ADRV 95.5% of the time.

Anti-Doping Rule Violation process

ASADA followed the principles set out under the World Anti-Doping Code and the National Anti-Doping (NAD) scheme to establish a process for the administration of potential ADRVs. The process generally includes:

  • the issuing of ‘show cause’ notices
  • reviews by the independent ADRVP
  • a hearing before a sports tribunal
  • the public disclosure of an ADRV.
Show Cause Notices

When the ASADA CEO reaches a conclusion a possible ADRV has occurred, the CEO is required under ASADA’s legislative framework to put allegations (via a show cause notice) to an athlete or support person and invite them to respond. Generally, athletes and support people have 10 days to lodge a submission in response to the show cause notice. This information, along with the evidence collected by ASADA, is put to the ADRVP for initial consideration as to whether a possible ADRV has occurred. This is only one step in the complete ADRV process for which the timeframes vary on a case-by-case basis.

If the ADRVP determines a possible ADRV occurred, the ASADA CEO writes to the athlete or support person and advises them the ADRVP is proposing to make an assertion of a possible ADRV. The athlete or support person is generally provided with a further 10 days to lodge a submission in relation to the alleged assertion. This information, along with any further evidence collected by ASADA, is put to the ADRVP for a second time for final consideration as to whether to make an assertion against the athlete or support person.

Table 1: Show Cause Notices issued

201617

201718

201819

201920

Athletes

33

31

19

20

Support personnel

0

0

0

0

TOTAL

33

31

19

20

Anti-Doping Rule Violation Panel

The ADRVP decides whether it is satisfied a possible ADRV was committed and, if so, makes an assertion there was a possible violation by the athlete or support person.

In 2019–20, all but one matter investigated and referred to the Legal Services seam resulted in an anti-doping rule violation finding. In total, 21 athletes were found to have committed an ADRV. All matters went to the ADRVP for initial and final consideration and in all cases, the ADRVP asserted the possibility of an ADRV.

One matter went to the ADRVP for initial and final consideration. The ADRVP asserted the possibility of an ADRV and upheld it at final consideration. The Athlete in this matter appealed the ADRVP assertion to the Administrative Appeals Tribunal, who found that the Athlete was not an Athlete who competed in sport for the purposes of the NAD scheme. As a result, this matter did not result in an ADRV.

The ADRV findings for 2019–20 were:

  • Use
  • Attempted Use
  • Presence
  • Possession
  • Tampering
  • Attempted Tampering
  • Trafficking
  • Attempted Trafficking.

Table 2: Anti-Doping Rule Violation Panel assertions, by sport in 201920

Sport

2019–20

Australian Rules Football (AFL)

1

Australian Rules Football (NEAFL)

1

Australian Rules Football (VFL)

1

BMX

1*

Cycling

1

Motor sport / motorcycling

1

Para Powerlifting

1

Powerlifting

1

Rugby League

5

Rugby Union

3

Softball

1

Swimming

1

Weightlifting

2*

TOTAL

20

*Assertions in BMX occurred on 2 July 2020, and an assertion was made in Weightlifting on 6 August 2020.

NB – Para Powerlifting and Powerlifting are counted as 2 separate sports, as are the 3 variations of Australian Rules Football.

Anti-Doping Rule Violations

Where the ADRVP made an assertion a possible ADRV was committed, the ASADA CEO notified the sport and the athlete or support person was given the opportunity to have a hearing before a sports tribunal. For most Australian sports, the relevant tribunal was the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS)15. The tribunal was responsible for finding whether an ADRV was actually committed and for imposing any relevant sanction under the anti-doping policy of the sport. Athletes and support persons can waive their right to a hearing. In these cases, the sport decides the appropriate sanction in accordance with its anti-doping policy. Athletes or support persons, ASADA, WADA, or an athlete’s or support person’s International Federation may have been able to appeal the sports tribunal’s decision to the Appeal Division of CAS.

Every athlete or support person notified of a possible ADRV was offered free access to an independent and confidential counselling service. Initiated by ASADA in 2011, the service is provided by Davidson Trahaire Corpsych, an independent organisation providing wellbeing and performance services to more than 2,000 organisations throughout the private, public and not-for-profit sectors.

Public disclosures of ADRVs

Generally, ASADA publicly disclosed an anti-doping rule violation once a relevant sporting body or sports tribunal made a final determination and any appeal is concluded.

The following table lists matters publicly disclosed by ASADA in 2019–20. The number of matters does not always equate to the number of sanctions imposed by sports during the reporting period. This is because:

  • matters may still be under appeal at the end of the reporting period, or
  • matters may have started in the previous reporting period.

Table 3: Anti-Doping Rule Violations publicly announced in 2019–20

Sport

Rule Violation1

Substance/Method

Sanction2

Powerlifting

Presence and Use

Higenamine

2 years

Rugby Union

Presence

Benzoylecgonine (metabolite of Cocaine)

2 years

Australian Rules Football (AFL)

Presence

Benzoylecgonine (metabolite of Cocaine)

One year and 6 months

Australian Rules Football (SANFL)

Presence

Endogenous AAS 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone

4 years

Triathlon

Possession

Clomiphene, Anastrozole, Testosterone

4 years

Rowing

Presence and Use

Di-Hydroxy LGD-4033

4 years

Rugby Union

Presence and Use

19-Norandrosterone (metabolite of Nandrolone; Norandrostenedione or Norandrostenediol),Methandienone and its metabolites 6b-hydroxymethandienone; 17-epimethandienone and 17b-hydroxymethyl-17a-methyl-18-nor-androsta-1, 4, 13-trien-3-one, Mestanolone, 17a-methyl-5a-androstane-3a, 17b-diol; 2z-hydroxymethyl-17a-methyl-5a-androstan-3a, 6b, 17b-triol; and 2z, 17b-dihydroxymethyl-17a-methyl-18-nor-5a-androst-13-en-3a-ol (metabolites of Oxymetholone),Oxandrolone and its metabolites 17b-methyl-17a-hydroxy-2-oxa-5a-androstan-3-one, 17b-hydroxymethyl-17a-methyl-18-nor-2-oxa-5a-androst-13-en-3-one, 17a-hydroxymethyl-17b-methyl-18-nor-2-oxa-5a-androst-13-en-3-one; 17a-Trenbolone (metabolite of Trenbolone); Nandrolone, Norandrostenedione, or Norandrostenediol; and/or Methandienone, and/or Oxymetholone, and/or Oxandrolone, and Trenbolone

4 years

Baseball

Presence and Use

Higenamine

2 years

Weightlifting

Presence and Use

LGD-4033 and its metabolite Di-hydroxy LGD-4033

4 years

Athletics

Presence, Use, Tampering or Attempted Tampering

Exogenous Testosterone, Androsterone, Etiocholanolone and 5β-androstane-3ₐ,17β-diol

4 years

Football (soccer)

Presence

Benzoylecgonine (metabolite of Cocaine)

2 years

Mountain Bike/ Cycling

Presence, Use, Possession, Attempted Use

4-chloro-3a-hydroxyandrost-4-en-17-one (metabolite of Clostebol), Oxandrolone and its metabolites (17b-methyl-17a-hydroxy-2-oxa-5a-androstan-3-one and 17a-hydroxymethyl-17b-methyl-18-nor-2-oxa-5a-androst-13-en-3-one), 16b-hydroxystanozolol and 17-epi-stanozolol-N-glucuronide (metabolites of Stanozolol), Thymosin Beta 4, Mechano Growth Factor, Ipamorelin, CJC-1295, GHRP-6, Long R3 IGF-1

4 years

Rugby League

Presence and Use

Higenamine (Beta-2-agonist) and 1,4-Dimethylpentylamine

2 years

Rugby League

Presence and Use

Higenamine

2 years

Motor sport / motorcycling

Presence, Use, Attempted Use, Possession, Trafficking and Attempted Trafficking

19-Norandrosterone, 19-Noretiocholanolone, Nandrolone, Norandrostenedione, Norandrostenediol, IGF-1, CJC-1295, Clenbuterol, Testosterone, Growth Hormone, D-amphetamine

Cycling

Presence and Use

Higenamine and Oxilofrine (methylsynephrine)

2 years

Australian Rules Football (VFL)

Presence

Benzoylecgonine

2 years

Rugby League

Presence and Use

19-NA and 19-NE (Metabolites of Nandrolone, Norandrostenedione and Norandrostenediol)

4 years

Rugby League

Presence and Use

Higenamine

2 years

Australian Rules Football (AFL)

Presence

Benzoylecogonine (metabolite of Cocaine)

12 months

Rugby League

Presence

Benzoylecogonine (metabolite of Cocaine)

2 years

Rugby League*

Presence

Benzoylecgonine (metabolite of cocaine)

2 years

Motor sport / motorcycling*

Presence and Use

Benzoylecgonine (metabolite of cocaine) and Cocaine

2 years

Triathlon*

Presence

Erythropoietin (EPO)

4 years

1‘Use’ means use of a banned substance or method. ‘Presence’ means that a banned substance (or its metabolites or markers) was found in a sample. ‘Possession’ means possession of a banned substance. ‘Trafficking’ means supplying a banned substance. ‘Complicity’ means knowing about or helping to carry out an anti-doping violation.

2No athlete or other person who has been declared ineligible may participate in any capacity in a competition or activity (other than authorised anti-doping education or rehabilitation programs) authorised by any Signatory or in competitions authorised by any professional league or any international- or national-level event organisation.

*Australian athletes ASADA did not have results management authority over

Performance measure 13

Link to ASADA strategic pillars

Intelligence

Outcome

Achievement of anti-doping rule violation findings in tribunals.

Measure

Percentage of cases conducted by ASADA in tribunals that result in a finding of an anti-doping rule violation

Criterion source

Corporate Plan (p. 15)

Methodology

Independent tribunal findings

Target

≥80% of tribunal findings result in an anti-doping rule violation

Result

MET

Performance measure analysis

During 2019–20, 2 matters heard before a tribunal were finalised. In both cases, the ADRVs were upheld. The matters were heard in:

  • AFL Anti-Doping Tribunal
  • NSWRL Anti-Doping Tribunal.

Footnotes

  1. Includes respondents who indicated ‘Mostly Aware’, ‘Partly Aware’ and ‘Somewhat Aware’.
  2. Includes respondents who indicated ‘Mostly Aware’, ‘Partly Aware’ and ‘Somewhat Aware’.
  3. The Level 1 Anti‑Doping course provides information on anti‑doping rule violations, prohibited substances and methods, supplements, doping control, Therapeutic Use Exemptions, and intelligence and investigations.
  4. The Level 2 Anti‑Doping course covers more advanced topics in anti‑doping and is updated annually to reflect current trends.
  5. Trend data for previous years is not available due to the course being developed in 2018.
  6. Comprises presentations to schools and sports.
  7. The rating of ‘compliant’ is based on ASADA’s assessments of whether a sport is fully compliant or adopting procedures in line with anti‑doping requirements.
  8. The Global Drug Reference Online (Global DRO) provides athletes and support personnel with information about the prohibited status of specific medications based on the current World Anti‑Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List.
  9. This does not include the one respondent who rated ‘moderate’.
  10. This does not include the 2 respondents who rated ‘moderate’.
  11. This does not include the 5 respondents who rated ‘moderate’.
  12. This does not include the 4 respondents who rated ‘moderate’.
  13. Scientific Analysis Reports are derived from assessment of laboratory results and other scientific information.
  14. An arrangement where sporting bodies, state governments and international federations engage ASADA for a fee to carry out anti‑doping testing on their athletes.
  15. In March 2020, the National Sports Tribunal took on this role. This was a commitment from the Wood Review response to provide a time and cost‑effective avenue for appealing all manner of sport disputes, including anti‑doping.