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In Africa, established al-Qa‘ida-aligned and ISIL-aligned groups continued their campaigns of attacks aimed at destabilising regional governments. Most target Westerners, including Australians, if they have the opportunity. Emerging ISIL affiliates have survived counter-terrorism operations and in some cases gained strength, including in northern Mozambique where one affiliate group operates close to Australian mining operations.
Mali-based terrorist groups have increased their areas of operation, including into Burkina Faso where 19 local employees of an Australian-owned company were killed in November 2019 when a mining convoy was ambushed.