Contingent liabilities and contingent assets are not recognised in the Statement of Financial Position but are reported in the notes. They may arise from uncertainty as to the existence of a liability or asset, or represent an asset or liability in respect of which the amount cannot be reliably measured. Contingent assets are disclosed when settlement is probable but not virtually certain and contingent liabilities are disclosed when settlement is greater than remote.
ARPANSA classifies its financial assets in the following category:
- financial assets measured at amortised cost.
The classification depends on both ARPANSA's business model for managing the financial assets and contractual cash flow characteristics at the time of initial recognition. Financial assets are recognised when ARPANSA becomes a party to the contract and, as a consequence, has a legal right to receive or a legal obligation to pay cash and derecognised when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire or are transferred upon trade date.
Financial assets at amortised cost
Financial assets included in this category need to meet two criteria:
- the financial asset is held in order to collect the contractual cash flows; and
- the cash flows are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal outstanding amount.
Amortised cost is determined using the effective interest method.
Effective interest method
Income is recognised on an effective interest rate basis for financial assets that are recognised at amortised cost.
Impairment of financial assets
Financial assets are assessed for impairment at the end of each reporting period based on Expected Credit Losses, using the general approach which measures the loss allowance based on an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses where risk has significantly increased, or an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses if risk has not increased.
The simplified approach for trade receivables is used. This approach always measures the loss allowance as the amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses.
A write-off constitutes a derecognition event where the write-off directly reduces the gross carrying amount of the financial asset.
Financial liabilities are classified as other liabilities. Financial liabilities are recognised and derecognised upon 'trade date'.
Other financial liabilities
Supplier and other payables are recognised at amortised cost. Liabilities are recognised to the extent that the goods or services have been received (and irrespective of having been invoiced).
When an asset or liability, financial or non-financial, is measured at fair value for recognition or disclosure purposes, the fair value is based on the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date; and assumes that the transaction will take place either: in the principle market; or in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market.
Fair value is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming they act in their economic best interest. For non-financial assets, the fair value measurement is based on its highest and best use. Valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, are used, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs.
For recurring and non-recurring fair value measurements, external valuers may be used when internal expertise is either not available or when the valuation is deemed to be significant. External valuers are selected based on market knowledge and reputation. Where there is a significant change in fair value of an asset or liability from one period to another, an analysis is undertaken, which includes a verification of the major inputs applied in the latest valuation and a comparison, where applicable, with external sources of data.