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Ownership of intellectual property rights in this publication

Unless otherwise noted, copyright (and other intellectual property rights, if any) in this publication is owned by the Commonwealth of Australia.

This publication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia Licence, which allows you to copy, distribute, transmit and adapt this publication provided that you attribute the work. A summary of the licence terms is available from:


The full licence terms are available from:


The Commonwealth of Australia’s preference is that you attribute this publication (and any material sourced from it) using the following wording:

Source: Licensed from the Commonwealth of Australia under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia Licence.

ISSN 0728–4691 (print)

ISSN 2202-7491 (online)

© Commonwealth of Australia, Australian Federal Police, 2020