5.2 Financial Instruments
5.2A: Categories of Financial Instruments
Financial assets at amortised cost
Cash and cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables
Total financial assets at amortised cost
Total financial assets
Financial liabilities measured at amortised cost
Trade creditors and accruals
Total financial liabilities measured at amortised cost
Total financial liabilities
5.2B: Net gains or losses on financial assets
Financial assets at amortised cost
Net losses on financial assets at amortised cost
With the implementation of AASB 9 Financial Instruments for the first time in 2019, the entity classifies its financial assets in the following categories:
a)financial assets at fair value through profit or loss;b)financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income; andc)financial assets measured at amortised cost.
The classification depends on both the entity's business model for managing the financial assets and contractual cash flow characteristics at the time of initial recognition. Financial assets are recognised when the entity becomes a party to the contract and, as a consequence, has a legal right to receive or a legal obligation to pay cash and derecognised when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire or are transferred upon trade date.
Comparatives have not been restated on initial application.
Financial Assets at Amortised Cost
Financial assets included in this category need to meet two criteria:
1. the financial asset is held in order to collect the contractual cash flows; and
2. the cash flows are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal outstanding amount.
Amortised cost is determined using the effective interest method.
Effective Interest Method
Income is recognised on an effective interest rate basis for financial assets that are recognised at amortised cost.
Financial Assets at Fair Value Through Other Comprehensive Income (FVOCI)
Financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income are held with the objective of both collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets and the cash flows meet the SPPI test.
Any gains or losses as a result of fair value measurement or the recognition of an impairment loss allowance is recognised in other comprehensive income.
Financial Assets at Fair Value Through Profit or Loss (FVTPL)
Financial assets are classified as financial assets at fair value through profit or loss where the financial assets either doesn't meet the criteria of financial assets held at amortised cost or at FVOCI (i.e. mandatorily held at FVTPL) or may be designated.
Financial assets at FVTPL are stated at fair value, with any resultant gain or loss recognised in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognised in profit or loss incorporates any interest earned on the financial asset.
Impairment of Financial Assets
Financial assets are assessed for impairment at the end of each reporting period based on Expected Credit Losses, using the general approach which measures the loss allowance based on an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses where risk has significantly increased, or an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses if risk has not increased.
The simplified approach for trade, contract and lease receivables is used. This approach always measures the loss allowance as the amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses.
A write-off constitutes a derecognition event where the write-off directly reduces the gross carrying amount of the financial asset.
Financial liabilities are classified as either financial liabilities ‘at fair value through profit or loss’ or other financial liabilities. Financial liabilities are recognised and derecognised upon ‘trade date’.
Financial Liabilities at Fair Value Through Profit or Loss
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are initially measured at fair value. Subsequent fair value adjustments are recognised in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognised in profit or loss incorporates any interest paid on the financial liability.
Financial Liabilities at Amortised Cost
Financial liabilities, including borrowings, are initially measured at fair value, net of transaction costs. These liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, with interest expense recognised on an effective interest basis.
Supplier and other payables are recognised at amortised cost. Liabilities are recognised to the extent that the goods or services have been received (and irrespective of having been invoiced).